Thursday, January 21, 2021

Community, Communication and the Wisdom of Trees

By:  Andrea Yoder

A frosty January sunrise over the farm
We have always been intrigued by the intricate design of the natural world around us, whether it be the short-lived sunrise or sunset, a clear sky filled with bright stars, or the peace we feel after a soft, gentle snowfall.  The natural world surrounds us with awe, wonder and mystery every day.  Recently we read an intriguing New York Times article entitled
“The Social Life Of Forests” by Ferris Jabr.  The article focused on the work of Suzanne Simrad, a professor of forestry at the University of British Columbia.  Simrad has focused her career on exploring the ways trees communicate and interact with each other and their surroundings.  She has spent much of her life studying trees in the old growth forests of Canada, including her childhood days playing and exploring the forests where her grandfather and uncles used horses to log the forests with low impact methods.  In May of this year, Simrad’s memoir entitled “Finding the Mother Tree” will be released.  This book chronicles her life’s work proving that “the forest was more than just a collection of trees.”  I am anxiously awaiting the release of her memoir, but my interest has been piqued and I wanted to share a little glimpse of Simrad’s work with you.  Perhaps this topic is of interest to you as well, and if it is, I encourage you to check out some of the resources at the end of this article.

A hillside forest provides the backdrop 
for fields of sunchokes in bloom
While our attention is on vegetables growing in our fields for most of the year, we acknowledge the fact that trees are an integral part of our valley landscape and ecosystem.  For much of the year, they provide a quiet backdrop for our activities and we really don’t pay much attention to them.  They quietly exist and are, for the most part, self-sufficient.  Several times a year their appearance changes, which catches our attention for a moment.  In the spring we notice when the brown, skeletal hillsides start to take on a green hue as the trees start to push out buds, then leaves, until finally the canopy of the forest has fully opened.  In the fall we notice once again as their leaves start to lose their green and turn to shades of red, yellow and orange, marking the transition into a new season.  
And finally, the trees release and drop their leaves, opening up our view of the forest and giving our wooded hillsides a whole new look while the green of the valley fades to exist only in the evergreen pines.  Perhaps we notice trees more this time of year because they are more prominent on our landscape that is otherwise white.  Or perhaps it is simply because we lift our eyes from the ground and look up long enough to see the trees.  How often do you take advantage of the opportunity to lift your eyes to notice the trees in your surroundings?  Upon first appearance trees appear to be solitary in their existence.  Occasionally their branches may become entangled or vines may grow around them, but otherwise they appear to stand on their own.  But Simrad will quickly point out that a forest is much more than just a collection of solitary trees.  A forest is actually a living, breathing community of trees, plants and lifeforms that is intricately connected by a vast network of underground fungi called mycorrhizae  In Jabr’s article he writes:  
A ghost plant growing from the rich forest 
floor near a fallen tree

“Before Simard and other ecologists revealed the extent and significance of mycorrhizal networks, foresters typically regarded trees as solitary individuals that competed for space and resources and were otherwise indifferent to one another.  Simard and her peers have demonstrated that this framework is far too simplistic.  An old-growth forest is neither an assemblage of stoic organisms tolerating one another’s presence nor a merciless battle royale:  It’s a vast, ancient and intricate society.  There is conflict in a forest, but there is also negotiation, reciprocity and perhaps even selflessness.  The trees, understory plants, fungi and microbes in a forest are so thoroughly connected, communicative and codependent that some scientists have described them as superorganisms.”

Laetiporus Sulphureus Mushrooms 
growing on a log amongst other understory plants
Simrad, along with her colleagues and other foresters, have found that individual trees are connected within a forest through this mycorrhizal system that intertwines itself on the roots of trees and plants.  This is a symbiotic relationship where the mycorrhizae feed on the sugars produced in the process of photosynthesis by the trees.  In exchange, the mycorrhizae have the ability to scavenge nutrients and transfer them to the tree roots while also forming an intricate system to connect trees and plants in an area.  They have found that this underground fungal system allows trees to “communicate” with each other.  Now, tree “talk” is not the same as human communication, so you have to look at tree talk from the perspective of a tree.  Trees communicate using chemical, hormonal and electrical signals—in a sense they speak a language all their own which means we as humans have to try to interpret what they are “saying” and most of the time we don’t even realize what’s happening.  They communicate through their root system which is directly tapped into the mycorrhizae, but also in the air using pheromones and other scent signals.

Trees line the river winding through our valley
When the vast mycorrhizal system is present, trees are able to translocate nutrients and water from one tree to others all across the forest.  Remember, trees cannot get up and walk to the river to get a drink and trees in a forest usually don’t have a human built irrigation system to move water to their roots.  So, they have essentially built their own irrigation system!  They also send nutrients through these channels, releasing nutrients to move to other trees in need, and receiving nutrients when they need them.  In this way, the forest, with all its trees and plants, becomes a community which takes care of the different members.  Simrad has also observed the value of “Mother Trees” in a forest.  These are mature trees that seem to nurture and care for young trees, imparting not only nutrients and water to help them thrive, but also tree wisdom.  Trees communicate through pheromones and chemicals to warn other trees of danger, insects, disease, drought, etc which allows the trees to then mount their own defenses to help them withstand whatever may threaten their survival.

A "birds-eye" view of Harmony Valley Farm
But why should we care about trees or how they communicate?  Why does any of this even matter to us?  In an interview Simrad did with Yale Environment 360, she was quoted as saying, “A forest is a cooperative system.  To me using the language of ‘communication’ made more sense because we were looking at not just resource transfers, but things like defense signaling and kin recognition signaling.  We as human beings can relate to this better.  If we can relate to it, then we’re going to care about it more.  If we care about it more, then we’re going to do a better job of stewarding our landscapes.”  Simply put, we need trees and forests.  They are an important part of our ecosystem and help us in many ways.  They help us combat climate change by capturing carbon and storing it in the soil.  They are a part of the amazing way Mother Nature purifies our air and water.  When we destroy forests, we take more than just the tree itself.  We destroy an entire organism that is an important part of our ecosystem.

Frosty winter trails 
Our health and well-being are also impacted by trees. 
Shinrin-yoku is a Japanese term that means “forest bathing.”  It is the practice of casually walking through the woods, a simple practice that we’re learning can contribute in meaningful ways to our overall wellness.  In Japan, they have over 60 official forest therapy trails and many doctors are becoming certified in forest medicine.  They are using this type of nature therapy as a means of combatting the negative impact stress has on our bodies.  It is a low cost, natural way to improve health by preventatively lowering stress levels while improving quality of life and fostering a greater overall sense of wellbeing.   There’s a growing body of research to support this practice, as researchers measure and document the physiological and psychological effects on the human body when in a natural environment.  Some of the observations they’ve made include reduction in blood pressure, increases in factors related to immunity, and increased relaxation.  You see, we too can be part of the forest community and whether we know it or not, perhaps the trees sense our presence and respond to us as well.

Whether you choose to explore this topic more on your own or not, at the very least I encourage you to spend a little time this winter exploring the winter landscape around you.  Get outside and walk in nature.  Notice the trees around you and enjoy their presence.  Garner a newfound respect for them and be part of their community.  After all, we as humans have the choice to be their advocate, allies and protectors, or their opposition.


Simrad, Suzanne.  Finding The Mother Tree.  Penguin Random House, 2021 May.

Wohlleben, Peter.  The Hidden Life of Trees:  What They Feel, How They Communicate—Discoveries From a Secret World.  Greystone Books, 2016 September.

Wednesday, January 20, 2021

Harmony Valley Farm CBD – Information and Uses

Hemp plants growing in the field at HVF
All Harmony Valley Farm (HVF) products are certified organic, which includes our CBD oil and CBD flowers. Our hemp products are grown in highly mineralized soil which includes trace minerals, and are subsurface irrigated as needed.  In other words, our hemp plants are grown in conditions which allow them to exhibit their full genetic expression!

Initial Lab Testing: Before we harvest our hemp plants, a representative from the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP) comes to the field and collects samples.  These samples are lab tested to verify that the THC content is less than 0.3%.  As a reference, marijuana typically tests between 15% to 30% THC content.

Hemp plants air-drying after harvest
Harvest: All HVF hemp is harvested by hand, and only the best buds are harvested.  The main stalk buds are harvested separately to use as CBD flowers, and the rest of the high quality buds are harvested to make into CBD oil.

After harvest, the hemp buds that are destined to become CBD oil are hung to dry in a clean space that is free of birds and rodents. When the flowers are dry the leaves are first removed, then the flowers are stripped from the stalks and stored for oil processing in small batches.

The main stalk buds are also hung to dry in a clean, pest-free space.  However, these flowers are more slowly dried and then cured.  After the curing process is complete these flowers are ready to be smoked or made into edibles.

HVF Single-Source CBD Oil
CBD Oil Processing: The buds that have been dried for CBD oil are transported to Driftless Dreams’ facility for processing.  Their new ‘white coat’ lab facility is also certified organic, ensuring that our completed CBD oil is certified organic each step of the way.  The Driftless Dreams facility is one of very few certified organic labs in the Midwest.  In order to maintain this certification they use a small batch press which uses only high pressure and heat to extract the CBD from the hemp flowers.  Heat is a necessary component of this process. Heating removes molecular carbon from the plant material, which activates the CBD making it available to the body.  One benefit of pressing the oil in small batches is that it allows for the individual inspection of the flowers before pressing.

Due to the organic certification of our CBD oil, it is guaranteed that no solvent extracted processing was used.  Solvent extracted oils are typically produced using ethanol.  This extraction method is used by other companies because it is cheaper and can be done in large batches.  Unfortunately, this method results in a lower quality oil which does not contain the full profile of 85+ cannabinoids and terpenes, and likely will contain unwanted solvent residues.  CBD oil from Harmony Valley Farm will always contain the full spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes, and will never include unwanted solvents or chemicals.

CBD Oil Testing: After Driftless Dreams extracts pressed rosin from our hemp flowers they have a sample lab tested for CBD content.  These lab results are used to precisely mix the CBD rosin with MCT coconut oil for bottling.  This ensures that each bottle of HVF CBD oil contains the same concentration of CBD no matter which batch it was made from.

Storage: We store the dried flower buds at a cool temperature, and have batches of oil pressed as needed.  Once pressed and bottled we recommend storing the oil in the refrigerator for up to one year.  After refrigeration the MCT coconut oil will have a cloudy appearance, but will return to a more clear oil at room temperature.  Make sure to shake the closed bottle of oil before each use to maintain a consistent CBD content within the solution.

When storing the dried hemp flowers it is recommended to use an air tight container and to store the flowers at a cooler temperature, although they do not need to be refrigerated.  This will ensure that the flowers maintain their quality until you are ready to use them.

Carefully selected Hemp Flowers,
Dried and ready for use 
How to Use Hemp Flowers: When using the hemp flowers there are two delivery options- ingesting orally (edibles) or inhaled (smoking or vaping).  Ingesting CBD in the form of edibles is a tasty option.  For example, you can make CBD butter which can then be used to make baked goods such as cookies or brownies, or simply spread on a piece of toast.  The benefits of the CBD will be delayed 30-90 minutes, and some will be lost in the digestive process.  By contrast, smoking or vaping the flowers is a fast and efficient way to feel the effects of the CBD in just a few minutes. However, the effects of the CBD when inhaled will only last for a couple of hours

How to Use CBD Oil: CBD oil can be taken orally or used as a topical treatment.  When taking the oil orally it is recommended to use the sublingual method.  To do this you place the oil under the tongue and hold it in place for one to two minutes without swallowing.  When used this way the CBD is able to bypass the digestive system and enter the bloodstream directly. The effects of the CBD will become apparent more quickly with the sublingual method than if the oil is simply swallowed. However, swallowing the oil is still an effective, though slower, delivery method.

For shallow physical aches and pains CBD can be administered topically.  To use the CBD oil topically simply massage the oil into the area where you are experiencing pain or discomfort.  The oil needs to be massaged into the area for only a few minutes to be effective.

A Note about the Taste of the CBD Oil: When HVF CBD oil is held under your tongue you will notice the taste of a full spectrum CBD.  Along with the distinct flavor of hemp flowers, you will also taste the unique characteristic of our chosen CBD strain “Suver Haze”.  Oregon Organics, the producers of this strain, describe the flavor profile as a “walk through an orange orchard in bloom”.  There is also an after taste with a bitter profile, which is completely normal and is the result of the beneficial terpenes. We choose not to mask these tastes with artificial flavoring as some do.  The strong, distinct flavor is your guarantee that you are getting the full CBD spectrum and potential benefits.

A Note about the Legality of CBD: Our CBD products are completely legal and conform to state and federal regulations.  Our products are tested by a third party and ensured to contain less than 0.3% THC. Use of our CBD products will not produce any psychoactive effects or feelings of being “high”.

Benefits of CBD: The use of CBD products may provide some relief from:
  • Anxiety disorders and PTSD *+
  • Depression *+
  • Arthritis Pain *
  • Chronic Pain +
  • Inflammation *+
  • Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting *
  • Sleep deprivation +
  • Oxidative Stress +
  • Metabolism and body weight +
  • Some pet owners are also using CBD to treat their animal friends’ discomfort. Our old dog Jack receives a high dose of CBD for his weight, and despite his severe arthritis he is able to make it to work every day on his own four paws.
Side Effects of CBD: CBD has been shown to be safe for humans, even with regular high doses.  Also, side effects for CBD are rare.  The most common side effect is tiredness/drowsiness, which can be mitigated by splitting up your CBD dosage throughout the day, or by only taking CBD before bed. Other possible side effects include:
  • Diarrhea
  • Change in appetite
  • Lowered blood pressure

Dosage: CBD dosage is very individual, and is dependent on a variety of factors. Your body weight, personal body chemistry, sensitivity to CBD and medical conditions can factor in, as well as the condition you wish to treat and the method with which you use the CBD.  It is necessary to pay attention to your own experiences with CBD to determine the dosage that produces your desired effects. Your daily dose of CBD can be divided into 2-3 doses throughout the day to maintain the effects all day long.  A simple formula for determining your initial daily dosage is 5 mg of CBD for every 10 pounds of body weight.  (Source: Our CBD oil contains 1200 mg of CBD per 2 ounce (60 mL) bottle of oil, so a full dropper (1 mL) contains 20 mg of CBD.  The following chart is a more detailed estimation of daily dosage levels based on body weight, and may be helpful for figuring out initial dosages:


+ Acres USA, June 2019 issue, “The Low Down on CBD” by Maryam Henein